Rural livelihood diversity to manage economic shocks: Evidence from south-east Zimbabwe, Social Protection and Vulnerability to Climate Shocks: a Panel Data Evidence from Rural Ethiopia, Land Access and Livelihood Strategies in Mvomero District Tanzania, Livelihood diversification strategies, incomes and soil management strategies: a case study from Kerio Valley, Kenya. Livelihood diversification interests and barriers to uptake for target populations: What are the economic and vocational visions and aspirations of population sub-groups of interest, and their perceived challenges and barriers to diversifying away from traditional climate-dependent livelihoods? With respect to ecosystem-based livelihoods, there is more household participation in fishing and seaweed farming, but it varies from village to village. The results indicate that livelihood diversification has a positive and significant effect on household income at p < 0.0001. {13.2.1, 13.3} • Changing climate trends lead to shifts in rural livelihoods with mixed outcomes, such … There are a lot of pushes and pull factors that affect rural livelihood diversification. Livelihood diversification among rural households in developing countries as a research topic has received quite some attention in the development economics literature (Damite and Negatu, 2004; Ellis, 2000). Livelihood diversification would include both on- and off-farm activities undertaken to generate income additional to that from the main household agricultural activities. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. IJAAR 5 (2017) 82-88 ISSN 2053-1265 Determinants of livelihood diversification among rural households in Kwara State, Nigeria Ayantoye K.1, Amao J. O.2* and Fanifosi G. E.2 1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria. As far as strategies are concerned, Scoones (1998) and Ellis, (2000) considered agricultural intensification 1, livelihood diversification and migration as the three core Both qualitative and quantitative methods … Thus, rural households engage in to different livelihood diversification activities to ensure their food needs and secure their future livelihoods. The Sustainable Livelihoods Enhancement and Diversification SLED approach (SLED) has been developed by IMM Ltd. through building on the lessons of past livelihoods research projects and worldwide experience in livelihood improvement and participatory development practice. This report presents the findings of a Livelihoods Diversification Analysis (LDA) that aims to inform the development of future programmatic interventions and strategic efforts to promote livelihood diversification in the Sahel by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Sahel Regional Office (SRO) at USAID/Senegal. After thorough reading, 42 papers were used to review out of 182 papers. According to Lawal and Omonona … diversification strategies Livelihood Diversification Strategies 4.2. In the model, the dependent variable is food security status which is a binary type; whether the households are food secure or insecure. Before the commencement of fieldwork, a pilot study is conducted during the month of June 2015. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. Clearly, efforts to increase short-term … Therefore, environmental managers often include livelihood diversification strategies in integrated resource management programs. Nelson, John. INTRODUCTION The concept of livelihood diversification1 is emerging as a survival strategy of rural households in developing countries (Ellis 2000; Bryceson 2000). Wp69.pdf (84.94Kb) Date 1998. (PDF) AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION ON THE FOOD SECURITY STATUS OF THE RURAL FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN UDI L.G.A OF ENUGU STATE | TJPRC Publication - Academia.edu Diversification of livelihoods is a recurrently applied approach for cushioning economic and environmental shocks on the path to improving food security. The paper’s objectives are first, to increase awareness of livelihood diversification in Households diversify their livelihoods as a means of satisfying their basic needs and also to achieve the livelihood objectives in the long run. The report emphasizes households and communities that are combining pastoralism with other livelihood activities or have moved out of … this „resilience‟ to stress and shocks is the diversification of elements that comprise „livelihood‟. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. … Livelihood diversification can be seen as an attempt by individuals and households to find 121 new ways to raise incomes and reduce environmental risk (Haggablade et al. However, the relationship between … Unsettled herder households (UHH), settled herder households (SHH) and farmer households (FH) are different household types in far northwestern China whose livelihood diversification has not been fully explored. These policies focus mainly on on-farm agricultural development to the neglect of rich opportunities for non-agricultural livelihood diversification activities. You do not need livelihoods diversification and alternative livelihoods in the drylands of eastern Africa. As agricultural specialization can start from an initial diversification move, also livelihoods diversification can eventually lead to some form of household specialization. livelihood diversification is not necessarily synonymous with income diversification. livelihood diversification strategies. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. Ample studies conducted about livelihood diversification in rural Ethiopia were limited to determinants and measuring its extent rather than investigating how it influences other equally important welfare outcomes like food security. Livelihood diversification is defined as the “process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in their struggle for survival and in order to improve their standards of living” (Ellis, 1998). In this context this study is designed to explore the livelihood diversification and different livelihood strategies perused by small farmers in Kaghan Valley of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. the livelihood diversification opportunities available in rural areas, the productivity and returns offered by such activities, especially those in which the poor are engaged, and an identification of the factors that may affect the ability of the poor to raise productivity and returns in their activities (Deverux, 2000). Stakeholders’ consultations were carried out at community, district, and regional levels. Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi, Alfred Kechia Mukong, Roland Azibo Balgah, Livelihood Diversification and Household Well-Being: Insights and Policy Implications for Forest-Based Communities in Cameroon, Society & Natural Resources, 10.1080/08941920.2020.1769243, (1-20), (2020). Such models approximate … … livelihood diversification strategies on selected rural tribal communities. Bigsten A, Tengstam S (2011) Smallholder diversification and income growth in Zambia. Some … and Ellis, (2000) considered agricultural intensification 1, livelihood diversification and migration as the three core livelihood strategies. Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. It is relevant to discussion of livelihoods diversification in Section 2. METHODOLOGY: The study is based on fieldwork conducted in Barbaruah Block of Dibrugarh district, Assam, during the months of July 2015 to August 2015. Livelihood diversification strategies play a key role in development process. Salam et al. Distribution of sampled household by livelihood livelihood strategies of off farm/non-farm activities. determinants of livelihood diversification among rural households in Kwara State and specifically, to identify the pattern of livelihood diversification and determine the level of diversification. IMPACT OF LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION ON HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY: THE CASE OF HURUNGWE DISTRICT, ZIMBABWE by ADMIRAL NCUBE Submitted in accordance with the requirements for the MASTER OF ARTS degree in the subject of DEVELOPMENT STUDIES at the UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA SUPERVISOR: DR. STEPHAN P. TREURNICHT . Furthermore, it is crucial to recognize that rural people have their own strategies to secure their … Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. 2007). The review was made on determinants and challenges of livelihood diversification in Ethiopia. Household livelihood diversification is a strategy to minimize risk and uncertainty. Data was gathered by household survey from … This paper explores just one facet of livelihood diversity, namely the reasons for households to adopt multiple livelihood strategies. This study was conducted to assess the various factors that affect households’ decisions on livelihood diversifications the case of Kuormuk and Homosha districts of Assosa zone, Beneshangul Gumuz regional state, western Ethiopia. The review was made on determinants and challenges of livelihood diversification in Ethiopia. It is therefore not surprising that many development strategies and programs seek to design development interventions to better promote livelihood diversification. Keywords: Livelihood Diversification, Women Empowerment, Self-Help Groups, Micro Credit 1. A 1.0% increase in livelihood diversification will lead to 3.9% increase in income signifying an elastic relationship. This focuses on assessing the contribution and impact of predominant livelihood diversification strategies in study area. In the case of fragile region like Jammu and Kashmir, this strategy is especially important. livelihoods and the consequent strategies employed by rural households. 3.2 Rural livelihoods diversification. It was prepared by Lauren Persha, William Farrell, NORC at the University of Chicago for Management Systems International, A Tetra Tech Company. more livelihood diversification and non-farm employment is typically good for individuals and overall economic growth in SSA. Just prior to publication of the White Paper Carney (1998) provides a simpler vision but also one which has resonance with that of Chambers and Conway: “A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including both material and This study particularly examines this question and explores how and to what extent livelihood diversification in the face of climate change can support long-term non-migration for people living in … 3. It is known as the sum of the squares … The analysis focuses on a … Livelihood diversification (or occupational diversification or off-farm diversification – we use the terms interchangeably), is one of the most remarkable characteristics of rural livelihoods. To learn more, view our, Research Title Profitability of Garri Processing in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State, Poverty in the midst of plenty: the challenges of farming households in Nigeria, EFFECT OF LIVELIHOOD INCOME ACTIVITIES ON FOOD SECURITY STATUS OF RURAL FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN YOLA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA. the households’ level of livelihood diversification. Livelihood diversification includes both on and off-farm activities which are undertaken to generate additional income from the major agricultural activities, via the production of subsidiary agricultural and non-agricultural goods and services, the sale of wage labor, or self-employment in small firms, and other strategies undertaken to minimize risk. Diversification of livelihoods is a recurrently applied approach for cushioning economic and environmental shocks on the path to improving food security. The differences between livelihood diversification and income diversification is that; livelihood diversification includes non-monetary activities as well as income earning activities, hence it is a broader concept than income diversification (Harris-Coble, 2017). Conversely, the identification of a particular niche commodity (e.g. Livelihood diversification in South Africa has become a norm for most of the rural households as a strategy to cope with the growing population and the rate at which poverty is rising among the households (Munhenga, 2014). Livelihood diversification is beneficial to mitigate economic and environmental risks and to improve livelihood sustainability and regional sustainable development. REVIEW ON DETERMINANTS OF SUSTAINABLE RURAL LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION OF SMALL HOLDER FARMERS IN ETHIOPIA. PDF | Diversification of livelihood activities minimizes households’ vulnerability to shocks by reducing income variability. This second set of issues represents the entry point of this article, namely, to highlight the differ-ent livelihood diversifi cation trends and strategies practiced by rural dwellers, and identify the key determinants of these strategies to inform the development of appro-priate policies for poverty reduction. Then 2SLS model was employed to detect the effects of CEI on household income. The LDA study, implemented between November 2016 and February … Livelihood diversification enables rural household farmers to device other means to promote their level of income and minimize susceptibility to different livelihood shocks. In this sense they are pushed into … 2 A. The results show that livelihood diversification is very high in coastal households in Zanzibar. 2Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, The determinants and effects of diversification in the areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are examined. designed to address any vulnerability of enhance livelihoods perhaps by diversification of income streams. Rural livelihood diversification is then defined as ‘the process by which households construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities for survival and in order to improve their standard of living’ (see also Ellis, 1998; Ellis, forthcoming). The tendency for rural households to engage in multiple occupations is oft remarked, but few attempts have been made to link this behaviour in a systematic … Income diversification is sometimes used interchangeable with livelihood diversification in literature. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. LIVELIHOODS AND COPING STRATEGIES OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN ABELA LIDA PEASANT ASSOCIATION OF SHEBEDINO DISTRICT, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA. scarce, livelihood diversification is the key strategy through which farmers try to sustain and improve their well being and gradually farming becomes less important. Different published and unpublished documents were collected through different search engines from different databases, Google scholar and Google. Understanding how livelihood diversification contributes to long-term non-migration decisions of people at risks is innovative and timely in the context of future climate change adaptation planning. Understanding how livelihood diversification contributes to long-term non-migration decisions of people at risks is innovative and timely in the context of future climate change adaptation planning. It aims to provide a set of guidance for development and conservation practitioners whose task it is to assist … LIVELIHOODS DIVERSIFICATION ANALYSIS (LDA) STUDY REPORT … It focuses on existing literature and on three case studies: (1) Karamoja, northeastern Uganda; (2) Borana Zone, southern Ethiopia; and (3) Garissa County, northeastern Kenya. For the poorest, who have the least capacity to effectively manage risk, diversification may be a response to constraints imposed upon them by increasing climate risk. The distinction is made between diversification of necessity and diversification by choice. Livelihood diversification is a strategy that can boost farmers’ income and promote sustainable land management practices. Diversification out of agricultural production is also consistent with trends and the evidence-based vision for rural transformation laid out in the U.S. Government’s Global Food Security Strategy (GFSS). For instance in Pakistan, rural households commonly … Sustainable enterprises provide a strong tool for livelihood development, but are still unable to find pathway towards development of ecosystem services and sustainable enterprises in coastal communities in Zanzibar. The aim of this … In this sense, rural livelihoods are not limited just to income derived solely from farming but it is a holistic way of looking on their livelihood strategies. Hussein, Karim. (ii) Organization of this paper This paper reviews some of the broad theoretical and case-study based literature on various forms of livelihood diversification in rural areas of … The aims of the review were to: (1) Identify livelihood diversification strategies and (2) Review determinant and challenges of rural livelihood diversification strategies. Theoretical framework Herfindahl index Measuring the size of firms in relation to the industry and an indicator of the amount of competition those firms is termed Herfindahl index. Livelihood diversification is a strategy that can boost farmers’ income and promote sustainable land management practices. Metadata Show full item record. Livelihood diversification strategies, including crop, labour and income diversification, are important in these contexts, although the motivations and outcomes may vary significant. During the pilot study, it is found that Barbarua Block of Dibrugarh district has the … However, income diversification refers to the process by which … The study employed Participatory Rural Appraisal and survey methods. These include activity or environment diversification in … For instance, in particular circumstance migratory wage labor may result so cost/effective to push the household away from conventional on-farm activities. This is the approach taken in this paper. Furthermore, fisheries and tourism are the In light of these, this study … Over the past three decades scholars and practitioners have looked to livelihood diversification as a strategy for sustainable resource exploitation and improved wellbeing. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. 1,2,3 . Logistic Econometric Model Results Cumulative Frequency Percent In order to examine the role of livelihood Percent On- farm 148 41.69 41.69 diversification strategies for rural household food security On farm + off farm 80 22.54 64.23 in … In addition, multiple employments is also a potential livelihood strategy on part of the rural people when the farm does not provide an adequate amount of income to the peasant families (Dharmawan, 1994; Upton, 1996). Ethiopia’s agricultural productivity is considered low despite the presence of various agricultural policies. Livelihood Diversification: A Streatagy for Rural Income Enhancement. The study Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. This reading provides an example of analysis of diversification among primarily rural households in Zambia. Although still of central importance, farming on its own is increasingly unable to provide a sufficient means of survival in rural areas. 1 Assistant Professor and Head of Department, Department of Rural Development, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus, Mardan, The University of Agriculture-Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Thus SLA could be said to be a practical framework for evidence-based intervention and has much logic resting behind it, especially in a world undergoing rapid change and where resources to support development interventions are inevitably limited. Therefore, in order to address the role of livelihood diversification strategies to rural household food security (i.e. The project will focus on building and Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. For the poorest, who have the least capacity to effectively manage risk, diversification may be a response to constraints imposed upon them by increasing climate risk. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. Muhammad Israr 1,, Humayun Khan 2, Dawood Jan 3, Nafees Ahmad 4. To learn more, view our. assessing the relationship between livelihood diversification strategies and household food security) logistic regression model was used. Diversification of livelihoods is essential Livelihood diversification has been defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in their struggle for survival and in order to improve their standards of living [7]. 2 Professor, Institute of Development Studies, The University of … Rural livelihoods diversification has generally occurred as a result of an increased importance of off-farm wage labor in household livelihood portfolio or through the development of new forms of on-farm/on-site production of non-conventional marketable commodities. However, identification of the factors that determine households’ choice of livelihood strategies of pastoralists has received little attention. On the other hand livelihood diversification is viewed as a residual sector that offers no more than a ‘bargain basement’ for distress or … A 1.0% increase in livelihood diversification will lead to 3.9% increase in income Different published and unpublished documents were collected through different search engines from different databases, Google scholar and Google. DECLARATION I, Admiral Ncube … Journal of African Economies 20(5) 781–822. Diversification may reduce this risk, but at the cost of lower returns in the long term (although not necessarily). LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES, INCOMES AND SOIL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES: A CASE STUDY FROM KERIO VALLEY, KENYA MIYUKI IIYAMA1*, PATRICK KARIUKI 2, PATTI KRISTJANSON , SIMEON KAITIBIE2 and JOSEPH MAITIMA2 1University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa 2The International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract: African farmers diversify their livelihood … (2019) also conducted a study on the impact of income diversification on rural livelihood in some selected areas of Bangladesh. The rural people are looking for diverse opportunities to increase and stabilize their incomes, which are determined by their portfolio of assets … By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. Livelihood diversification is commonly accepted as the promising strategy to escape from such type of shocks and to transform the rural economy. Efforts to raise or stabilise incomes, to reduce risk, and to deal with the seasonality of certain types of income (especially farming incomes) may lead to the over-exploitation of environmental resources and the erosion of natural capital over the longer term. Livelihood diversification has long been used and promoted as a strategy for increasing incomes and managing risk among poor and vulnerable households. This study examines the role of livelihood diversification in promoting household food security with particular reference to Hurungwe District in Zimbabwe. management, livelihood improvement and diversification, improvement of basic services and capacity building, project management, monitoring and evaluation. By applying a … Therefore, this study was conducted to empirically analyse the effect of livelihood The result generated through review may be important for development practitioners, researchers and … Diversification can be non-farm (non-agricultural enterprises) or off-farm activities where rural income is earned in the rural area. Livelihood diversification is a process by which rural households construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in their struggle for survival and improvement in their standards of living [] and the means of gaining a living [].It can be defined as the maintenance and continuous alteration of highly varied range of activities and occupations to minimize household … Agriculture in developing countries is unable to meet food needs of rural people. more livelihood diversification and non-farm employment is typically good for individuals and overall economic growth in SSA. This paper examines livelihood diversification as a survival strategy of rural households in developing countries.

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