1. Fàbregas N, Torres A, El-Ebiary M, et al. What is new in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia? Presentation Summary : Internal Anatomy of the Brain (cont.) anatomy and physiology ppt on cells April 16th, 2018 - Skeletal system anatomy and physiology ppt on Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology 11e9 10 Nervous System Control Marieb Human Anatomy amp Physiology' 'The Nervous System jkaser com May 1st, 2018 - Essentials of Human Anatomy amp Oxford University Press makes no representation, express or implied, that the drug dosages in this book are correct. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. Look through the various powepoint presentations. A range of imaging techniques can be employed to visualize the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the GI tract. They are all availible in ppt form - perfect for reviewing and printing. Powerpoint (ppt) presentation / slides / teaching resource Past exam questions and mark schemes included Follows the Cambridge syllabus / official Cambridge iGCSE PE textbook exactly Images and video links embedded Fully modifiable. Histopathologic and microbiologic aspects of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Affiliation 1 Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Eye Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA. The ability of a system or living organism to adjust its internal environment to maintain a stable equilibrium, such as the ability of warmblooded animals to maintain a constant internal temperature despite changes in outdoor temperature. Review Of Capillary Physiology And Anatomy PPT. Physiology has more to do with the functioning of organs of the body, for example the digestion of and absorption of feed. Mechanical ventilation associated pneumonia. Much like the alveoli which are mainly responsible for oxygen exchange, the apples are the end product of the tree. The ventilator circuit is often highly colonized (80% of condensate after 24 hours by enteric gram-negative bacteria (EGNB); however, when it is routinely changed, there’s no impact on VAP incidence. Ventilator-associated pneumonia. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Great. The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "The Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System" is the property of its rightful owner. Oxygen enters blood in the lungs and is transported to cells. Colonization of the lower respiratory tract. Physiology and anatomy of reproduction 3 Learning objectives : The objective of this distance learning course is to understand the basis of dairy bovine physiology and anatomy reproductive system. There are two parts to the skeleton: 1. It is an important cause of morbidity, with prolonged MV, ICU/hospital length of stay, and estimated costs as high as $40,000 per patient. Axial skeleton – bones along the axis of the body, including the skull, vertebral column and ribcage; 2. • Furthermore, at the ETT’s inner surface biofilm forms, serving as a reservoir for infection and protection from antibiotic effects. The causative organism in more than half of the cases is a bacterium called Streptococcus pneumoniae. Anesthesiology, 84, 760–71.Find this resource: You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Early-onset HAP or VAP is the one occurring during the first 4 days of hospitalization (ward or ICU respectively), whereas when it develops at the 5th day or afterwards is referred as late-onset HAP/VAP. Physiology and anatomy of reproduction 3 Learning objectives : The objective of this distance learning course is to understand the basis of dairy bovine physiology and anatomy reproductive system. On the basis of anatomy, pneumonia is classified into lobar, lobular, interstitial, and millary pneumonia. Readers must therefore always check the product information and clinical procedures with the most up to date published product information and data sheets provided by the manufacturers and the most recent codes of conduct and safety regulations. Objectives []. Pneumonia Pneumonia is an infection in one or both lungs. Minimizing sedation is a strategy to be enhanced to prevent VAP. Intercellular and interorgan signaling … PNEUMONIA Home Respiratory System Asthma Recreation Programming Case Study About Contact References ASTHMA What is Asthma? Inadequate hand washing may contribute to cross-infection with resistant species. Do you have PowerPoint slides to share? 2021. Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is defined as pneumonia developing 48 hours or more after hospital admission. It refers to direct inoculation of the micro-organism through the ETT by health care workers that manipulates the patient’s airway. The Physiology of Venous Return As arterial blood flows into the leg, distal superficial veins constantly fill Venous Blood is regularly emptied from the superficial system into the deep venous system via the SFJ, SPJ and perforators This blood is then returned to the right side of the heart through one-way valves by calf muscle contraction. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Fluoroscopic studies have been the traditional method of imaging mucosal detail and structural abnormalities complementing endoscopic and … Because of this multifocal and patchy distribution, quantitative biopsy cultures cannot reliably discriminate between patients with or without evidence of histological pneumonia [7]. See Fig. VAP develops when micro-organisms present in distal lung tissue (alveoli) overwhelm host defences with its virulence and burden. These foci of pneumonia are predominantly distributed in lower lobes and dependent zones of the lungs. OF THE AIRWAY. Human heart anatomy and physiology Part -1 … We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Anatomy and physiology of the cornea J Cataract Refract Surg. PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com). Aetiological agents differ widely between populations since they are determined by the type of ICU, hospital or ICU length of stay, prior antimicrobial therapy, and diagnostic method used. 5. The word is derived from the Greek work “to cut up.” II. Decreased T-helper lymphocytes (CD3+ and CD4+) due to accelerated apoptosis, increased monocyte apoptosis, and both peripheral and lung neutrophil dysfunction, all resulting in decreased clearing of pathogens. PDF | In this chapter we explain: The basic anatomy and physiology of the kidney How kidney function changes through life | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Sign up to an individual subscription to the Oxford Textbook of Critical Care. All Rights Reserved. Rello J, Afonso E, Lisboa T, et al. Capillaries. Gallego M and Rello J. Corpus callosum. Instructors can customize APR by indicating the specific content required in their course through a simple menu selection process. Ok, are you on board so far? Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Indeed, many authors use HAP and VAP interchangeably. Nonetheless, it is a secondary source of aspiration. Considering this, the most frequently isolated micro-organisms in VAP are Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterobacteriaceae. Gas exchange. The heart, blood, and blood vessels are the major components of the cardiovascular system. ◆ Mortality is low, but VAP is an important cause of morbidity, with prolonged MV, ICU length of stay, and excessively high estimated costs. Section 1 ICU organization and management, Part 4.10 Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Part 4.12 Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis, Chapter 116 Diagnosis and management of community-acquired pneumonia, Chapter 117 Diagnosis and management of nosocomial pneumonia, Chapter 118 Diagnosis and management of atypical pneumonia, Part 4.14 Atelectasis and sputum retention, Section 10 The metabolic and endocrine systems, Section 12 The skin and connective tissue, Section 19 General surgical and obstetric intensive care, Section 21 Recovery from critical illness. Subglottic secretion drainage reduces the risk for developing VAP. Anatomy & Physiology of Pharynx - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Learn new and interesting things. They are all availible in ppt form - perfect for reviewing and printing. Chest, 122, 2115–21.Find this resource: 4. ◆ Prevention care bundles reduce the incidence of VAP, as well as MV duration and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay. The Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Functions of the Respiratory System Air Distributor Gas exchanger PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com). Anatomy and physiology always work together. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. 2 Click Print Print what: – on lower left side click the down pointing arrow and then click handouts from the drop-down list INTRODUCTION. Prevention [8,9] of VAP can be achieved with implementing care bundles, which include hand hygiene before airway manipulation, oral care with chlorhexidine, maintenance of intracuff pressure above 20 cmH2O to reduce leakage of oropharyngeal secretions to the lower airways tract, and sedation control protocols. Definition nn Chest wall (including pleura and diaphragm) nn Airways nn AlveolarAlveolar –– capillary units nn Pulmonary circulation nn Nerves nn CNS or Brain Stem nn Respiratory failure is a syndrome of inadequate gas exchange due to dysfunction of one or more essential components of the respiratory system:essential components of the respiratory system: Printing from PowerPoint - how to change from slides to handouts. Many are downloadable. (p. 532) A variety of organisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, can cause pneumonia.Pneumonia can range in seriousness from mild to life-threatening. Exogenous ways of colonization represent approximately <5% of all routs [2,4,6,7]. CrystalGraphics brings you the world's biggest & best collection of anatomy physiology PowerPoint templates. MANOJ SHARMA UCMS & GTB HOSPITAL The term „anatomy” derives from the ancient Greek meaning „to dissect“. It is monitored by the brain and nervous system and regulated by the physiology and activity of individual organs. (2009). Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 19(4), 363–9.Find this resource: 10. Dysphagia week 2 ppt anatomy and physiology of the normal swallow study guide by christinasteichen includes 60 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Anatomy, Physiology, And Disease PPT Presentation Summary : Inside of brain has white and gray matter, and hollow cavities containing CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) White matter surrounded by gray matter. ◆ Early antibiotic therapy is responsible for decrease in VAP incidence, but facilitates selection of multidrug-resistant organism. Introduction The respiratory system includes tubes that remove particles from incoming air an d transport air to and from lungs and the air sacs where gases are exchange. 1. Anatomy: The study of STRUCTURE. It performs many vital functions, including protection against external physical, chemical, and biologic assailants, as well as prevention of excess water loss from the body and a role in thermoregulation. Anatomy and Physiology of the Lungs Bronchi gradually form more generations, like a tree branch, and become smaller and smaller. For our anatomy and physiology discussion, think of the lungs as an inverted apple tree. Fbao management daviespike. (p. 533) The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus (purulent material), causing cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing. Appendicular skeleton – appendages, such as the upper and lower limbs, pelvic girdle and shoulder girdle. The skeletal system is composed of bones and cartilage connected by ligaments to form a framework for the rest of the body tissues. The Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Functions of the Respiratory System Air Distributor Gas exchanger Filters, Clinics in Chest Medicine, 20, 671–9.Find this resource: 11. Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. Humidifier. Rates are usually higher in surgical than medical ICUs. Lungs are balloon like structures in the body whose purpose is gas exchange. View Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology (1).ppt from G141/1002 G141 at Rasmussen College. Furthermore, infections caused by multiresistant pathogens, such as methillicin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, have substantially higher mortality. Passageways that allow air to reach the lungs. So, a tree has a stump with branches extending to smaller branches with leaves and apples. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). Risk factors for HAP are summarized in Box 115.1. Carbon dioxide, produced by cells, is transported in the blood to the lungs, from which it is expelled. Collection of white matter that connects left and right hemispheres. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Purify, humidify, and warm incoming air. Macroscopic anatomy describes structures, organs, muscles, bones etc. Oxygen diffuses from the alveolus through the alveolar-capillary membrane into the blood, and carbon dioxide diffuses from […] Causal Organisms for Pneumonia. INTRODUCTION. Pneumonia is a type of acute lower respiratory infection that is common and severe. This is caused by micro-organisms that colonize the upper airway, biofilm, and respiratory tract [1,2,3,4,5,6], often by pathogens with strong intrinsic or acquired antimicrobial resistance. View week 10.ppt.ppt from IPP(BU) 104 at Bahria University, Karachi. 1 Click the office button. Diagnostic testing for ventilator-associated pneumonia. Aspiration from the upper respiratory tract. Anatomy & Physiology by Lindsay M. Biga, Sierra Dawson, Amy Harwell, Robin Hopkins, Joel Kaufmann, Mike LeMaster, Philip Matern, Katie Morrison-Graham, Devon Quick & Jon Runyeon is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Passageways that allow air to reach the lungs. Ingested nutrients, ions, and water are carried by the blood from the digestive tract to cells, and the waste products of the cells are moved to the kidneys for eliminatio… Blood is unique; it is the only fluid tissue in the body.1. Passageway. I. Anatomy and Physiology.ppt Shama. MBBS , MD Pulmonary Medicine. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 165, 867–903.Find this resource: 3. Causal Organisms for Pneumonia. On the other hand, Candida and Enterococcus species should be considered as colonizers since there is not histological prove of them causing pneumonia. ◆ Hypoxaemia is a key element in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prognosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Like the bustling factory, the body must have a transportation system to carry its various cargos back and forth, and this is where the cardiovascular system steps in. Lesson 1: Internal Anatomy of Poultry . Very late VAP in tracheostomized patients is associated with non-fermentative GNB. The respiratory system organs oversee the gas exchanges that occur between the blood and the external environment. are the smallest blood vessel in the. The causative organism in more than half of the cases is a bacterium called Streptococcus pneumoniae. Fig. 5. Pneumonia is a common condition that affects about 1 out of 100 people every year. Late VAP is independently associated with higher mortality. American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America. Rello J, Lisboa T, and Koulenti D. (2014). It is most serious for infants and young children, people older than age 65, … On the basis of anatomy, pneumonia is classified into lobar, lobular, interstitial, and millary pneumonia. A nasogastric tube causes oesophageal sphincter incompetence resulting in oesophageal reflux [2,4,6,7] and the possibility of aspiration, especially in patients receiving enteral nutrition. This article explores the anatomical and physiological changes that occur in the respiratory system with age. Rello J, Ollendorf DA, Oster G, et al. Pneumonia is an infection of the lung, and can be caused by nearly any class of organism known to cause human infections, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.In the United States, pneumonia is the sixth most common disease leading to death, and the most common fatal infection acquired by already hospitalized patients. Pneumonia is a common condition that affects about 1 out of 100 people every year. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. (1999). Get ideas for … Pneumonia in the intensive care unit. 2. Risk factors for late-onset VAP include tracheobronchial colonization with enteric Gram negative bacilli (GNB) or P. aeruginosa, duration of MV, prolonged antibiotic treatment, and prior use of antibiotics within the preceding 30 days. Question 2: Name different levels of structural organization that make up the human body, and explain their relationships. A care bundle approach for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. As in veterinary anatomy human anatomy is subdivided into macroscopic (or gross) and microscopic anatomy. Airway. 4. Rello J and Diaz E. (2003). Except where otherwise stated, drug dosages and recommendations are for the non-pregnant adult who is not breastfeeding. Diaz E, Lorente L, Valles J, et al. If so, share your PPT presentation slides online with PowerShow.com. Every living cell in the body needs oxygen for cellular respiration and generates carbon dioxide as a waste product; an efficient resp… 2011 Mar;37(3):588-98. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2010.12.037. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN RESPIRATORY TRACT: The respiratory system works with the circulatory system to deliver oxygen from the lungs to the cells and remove carbon dioxide, and return it to the lungs to be exhaled.The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air, blood and body tissues is known as respiration. Potential bacterial aerosolization can occur from precipitate of the condensate from warm humidifiers, which justifies the use of cascade humidifiers, which do not generate micro-aerosols. Micro-arrays have demonstrated specific different immunological signatures for VAP and VAT. The authors and the publishers do not accept responsibility or legal liability for any errors in the text or for the misuse or misapplication of material in this work. Times New Roman Arial Unicode MS Arial Marble Respiratory Anatomy and Physiology BREATH Function of Respiration Inspiration Expiration PowerPoint ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 3b414e-MGVkY Anatomy, Physiology, And Disease 817359 PPT. Critical Care Medicine, 31, 2544–51.Find this resource: 5. (shown to the right). When we take our breath, called inspiration, atmospheric air enters the airways and travels to the alveoli, the smallest units of lung for air exchange. It transports everything that must be carried from one place to another within the body- nutrients, wastes (headed for elimination from the body) and body heat through blood vessels. The functions of the respiratory system are: 1. Risk factors and prevention. Passageway. ◆ Facilitated by the endotracheal tube (ETT) as a result of various mechanisms: • Secondly, above ETT a pool of secretion is formed that by capillary leak goes down longitudinal channels formed by the folds of the cuff, even when correctly positioned and inflated at standard pressure. Vincent JL, Rello J, Marshall J, et al. Long before modern medicine, blood was viewed as magical, because when it drained from the body, life departed as well. (2012). Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. The skin is the largest organ of the body, accounting for about 15% of the total adult body weight. 2 Click Print Print what: – on lower left side click the down pointing arrow and then click handouts from the drop-down list WINNER! Artificial airway is the most important risk factor for developing HAP, increasing the risk from 6 to 21-fold. Pneumonia in ventilated patients is a multifocal process disseminated within each pulmonary lobe. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Every cell in … Pneumonia causes inflammation in the alveoli. Caused by community-acquired pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza, or meticillin-susceptible S. aureus), where antimicrobial resistances are rare. Pneumonia is a type of acute lower respiratory infection that is common and severe. The following terms are used to describe locations on the animal body. 115.1 Organ colonization time-evolution during ICU stay. Introduction. (2005). Anatomy & Physiology of the Respiratory System The respiratory system is situated in the thorax, and is responsible for gaseous exchange between the circulatory system and the outside world. “Asthma is a chronic disease that makes your lungs very sensitive and hard to breathe” (Canadian Lung Association, 2015). 115.1 for the colonization’s evolution in MV patients. ICU mortality ranges from 24 to 76%, with overall attributable mortality lower than 10%, focusing on surgical patients (in contrast with medical or trauma) [3]. Antibiotic exposure has a protective effect in early VAP, but increases risk for late VAP, since it selects multiresistant species. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. * At 48 hours 80% of ETT are colonized, but heavy colonization occurs at 60–96 hours. Allows for cross-communication ◆ The main route by which the bacteria invade lower respiratory tract: favoured by impaired or abolished cough reflex by sedatives and muscle paralysers. OF THE EXTERNAL EAR, MIDDLE EAR AND INNER EAR Prof. Alexander I. Yashan, MD, PhD EXTERNAL, MIDDLE AND THE INTERNAL EAR. Blot S, Rello J, and Vogelaers D. (2011). Presentation Summary : is a very small vessel that allows blood to return from the capillaries back into the venous circulation. Anatomy and Physiology of Respiration - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. 1 1 . 3. The diaphragm is the large dome shaped muscle that contracts and relaxes during breathing. Look through the various powepoint presentations. The study of anatomy is divided into 2 major fields: 1. As we examine each part of the body, always consider both its structure and its function. CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ANESTHESIOLOGY AND REANIMATION INTRODUCTION A person can live for weeks without food and a few days without water but only a few minutes without oxygen. Gas exchange. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 171, 388–416.Find this resource: 8. Physiology A. Physiology is the science that deals with the functions of the living organism and its parts. © Oxford University Press, 2021. Blood is the “river of life” that surges within us. Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics, Anesthesiology: A Problem-Based Learning Approach, The European Society of Cardiology Textbooks, International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry, Oxford Specialty Training: Basic Sciences, Oxford Specialty Training: Revision Texts, Oxford Specialty Training: Revision Notes, Sign up to an individual subscription to the, Section 1 ICU organization and management, Chapter 3 Rapid response teams for the critically ill, Chapter 4 In-hospital transfer of the critically ill, Chapter 5 Pre- and inter-hospital transport of the critically ill and injured, Chapter 6 Regional critical care delivery systems, Chapter 7 Integration of information technology in the ICU, Chapter 8 Multiple casualties and disaster response in critical care, Chapter 9 Management of pandemic critical illness, Chapter 10 Effective teamwork in the ICU, Chapter 11 Communication with patients and families in the ICU, Chapter 12 Telemedicine in critical care, Chapter 13 Clinical skills in critical care, Chapter 14 Simulation training for critical care, Chapter 17 Policies, bundles, and protocols in critical care, Chapter 18 Managing biohazards and environmental safety, Chapter 19 Managing ICU staff welfare, morale, and burnout, Chapter 20 ICU admission and discharge criteria, Chapter 21 Resource management and budgeting in critical care, Chapter 22 Costs and cost-effectiveness in critical care, Chapter 23 Evidence-based practice in critical care, Part 1.7 Medico-legal and ethical issues, Chapter 27 Medico-legal liability in critical care, Part 1.8 Critical illness risk prediction, Chapter 28 The role and limitations of scoring systems, Chapter 29 Severity of illness scoring systems, Chapter 31 Genetic and molecular expression patterns in critical illness, Chapter 33 Bronchodilators in critical illness, Chapter 34 Vasopressors in critical illness, Chapter 35 Vasodilators in critical illness, Chapter 36 Inotropic agents in critical illness, Chapter 37 Anti-anginal agents in critical illness, Chapter 38 Anti-arrhythmics in critical illness, Chapter 39 Pulmonary vasodilators in critical illness, Chapter 40 Gastrointestinal motility drugs in critical illness, Chapter 41 Stress ulcer prophylaxis and treatment drugs in critical illness, Chapter 42 Sedatives and anti-anxiety agents in critical illness, Chapter 43 Analgesics in critical illness, Chapter 44 Antidepressants in critical illness, Chapter 45 Antiseizure agents in critical illness, Chapter 46 Inhalational anaesthetic agents in critical illness, Chapter 47 Muscle relaxants in critical illness, Chapter 48 Neuroprotective agents in critical illness, Chapter 49 Hormone therapies in critical illness, Chapter 50 Insulin and oral anti-hyperglycaemic agents in critical illness, Chapter 51 Anticoagulants and antithrombotics in critical illness, Chapter 52 Haemostatic agents in critical illness, Part 2.7 Antimicrobial and immunological drugs, Chapter 53 Antimicrobial drugs in critical illness, Chapter 55 Immunotherapy in critical illness, Chapter 57 Crystalloids in critical illness, Chapter 58 Diuretics in critical illness, Chapter 59 Airway management in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Chapter 60 Artificial ventilation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Chapter 61 Pathophysiology and causes of cardiac arrest, Chapter 62 Cardiac massage and blood flow management during cardiac arrest, Chapter 63 Defibrillation and pacing during cardiac arrest, Chapter 64 Therapeutic strategies in managing cardiac arrest, Chapter 65 Post-cardiac arrest arrhythmias, Chapter 66 Management after resuscitation from cardiac arrest, Chapter 67 Ethical and end-of-life issues after cardiac arrest, Chapter 69 Choice of resuscitation fluid, Chapter 70 Therapeutic goals of fluid resuscitation, Chapter 71 Normal physiology of the respiratory system, Chapter 72 Blood gas analysis in the critically ill, Chapter 73 Pulse oximetry and capnography in the ICU, Chapter 74 Respiratory system compliance and resistance in the critically ill, Chapter 75 Gas exchange principles in the critically ill, Chapter 76 Gas exchange assessment in the critically ill, Chapter 77 Respiratory muscle function in the critically ill, Chapter 78 Imaging the respiratory system in the critically ill, Chapter 79 Upper airway obstruction in the critically ill, Chapter 80 Standard intubation in the ICU, Chapter 81 The difficult intubation in the ICU, Chapter 82 The surgical airway in the ICU, Chapter 83 Dyspnoea in the critically ill, Chapter 84 Pulmonary mechanical dysfunction in the critically ill, Chapter 85 Hypoxaemia in the critically ill, Chapter 86 Hypercapnia in the critically ill, Chapter 87 Cardiovascular interactions in respiratory failure, Chapter 88 Physiology of positive-pressure ventilation, Chapter 89 Respiratory support with continuous positive airways pressure, Chapter 90 Non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation, Chapter 91 Indications for mechanical ventilation, Chapter 92 Design and function of mechanical ventilators, Chapter 93 Setting rate, volume, and time in ventilatory support, Chapter 94 Respiratory support with positive end-expiratory pressure, Chapter 95 Volume-controlled mechanical ventilation, Chapter 96 Pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation, Chapter 98 High-frequency ventilation and oscillation, Chapter 100 Failure to ventilate in critical illness, Chapter 101 Ventilator trauma in the critically ill, Chapter 102 Assessment and technique of weaning, Chapter 103 Weaning failure in critical illness, Chapter 104 Extracorporeal respiratory and cardiac support techniques in the ICU, Chapter 105 Treating respiratory failure with extracorporeal support in the ICU, Chapter 106 Aspiration of gastric contents in the critically ill, Chapter 107 Inhalation injury in the ICU, Part 4.10 Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Chapter 108 Pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome, Chapter 109 Therapeutic strategy in acute respiratory distress syndrome, Chapter 110 Pathophysiology and causes of airflow limitation, Chapter 111 Therapeutic approach to bronchospasm and asthma, Chapter 112 Therapeutic strategy in acute or chronic airflow limitation, Part 4.12 Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis, Chapter 113 Pathophysiology and therapeutic strategy of respiratory acidosis, Chapter 114 Pathophysiology and therapeutic strategy of respiratory alkalosis, Chapter 115 Pathophysiology of pneumonia, Chapter 116 Diagnosis and management of community-acquired pneumonia, Chapter 117 Diagnosis and management of nosocomial pneumonia, Chapter 118 Diagnosis and management of atypical pneumonia, Part 4.14 Atelectasis and sputum retention, Chapter 119 Pathophysiology and prevention of sputum retention, Chapter 120 Lung recruitment techniques in the ICU, Chapter 121 Chest physiotherapy and tracheobronchial suction in the ICU, Chapter 122 Toilet bronchoscopy in the ICU, Chapter 123 Pathophysiology of pleural cavity disorders, Chapter 124 Management of pneumothorax and bronchial fistulae, Chapter 125 Management of pleural effusion and haemothorax, Chapter 126 Pathophysiology and causes of haemoptysis, Chapter 127 Therapeutic approach in haemoptysis, Chapter 128 Normal physiology of the cardiovascular system, Chapter 130 Arterial and venous cannulation in the ICU, Chapter 131 Blood pressure monitoring in the ICU, Chapter 132 Central venous pressure monitoring in the ICU, Chapter 133 Pulmonary artery catheterization in the ICU, Chapter 134 Mixed and central venous oxygen saturation monitoring in the ICU, Chapter 135 Right ventricular function in the ICU, Chapter 136 Cardiac output assessment in the ICU, Chapter 137 Oxygen transport in the critically ill, Chapter 138 Tissue perfusion monitoring in the ICU, Chapter 139 Lactate monitoring in the ICU, Chapter 140 Measurement of extravascular lung water in the ICU, Chapter 141 Doppler echocardiography in the ICU, Chapter 142 Monitoring the microcirculation in the ICU, Chapter 143 Imaging the cardiovascular system in the ICU, Part 5.3 Acute chest pain and coronary syndromes, Chapter 144 Causes and diagnosis of chest pain, Chapter 145 Pathophysiology of coronary syndromes, Chapter 146 Diagnosis and management of non-STEMI coronary syndromes, Chapter 147 Diagnosis and management of ST-elevation of myocardial infarction, Chapter 148 Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of aortic dissection, Chapter 150 Diagnosis and management of shock in the ICU, Chapter 151 Pathophysiology and causes of cardiac failure, Chapter 152 Therapeutic strategy in cardiac failure, Chapter 153 Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation in the ICU, Chapter 154 Ventricular assist devices in the ICU, Chapter 155 Causes and diagnosis of tachyarrhythmias, Chapter 156 Therapeutic strategy in tachyarrhythmias, Chapter 157 Causes, diagnosis, and therapeutic strategy in bradyarrhythmias, Chapter 158 Causes and diagnosis of valvular problems, Chapter 159 Therapeutic strategy in valvular problems, Chapter 160 Pathophysiology and causes of endocarditis, Chapter 161 Prevention and treatment of endocarditis, Chapter 162 Pathophysiology and causes of severe hypertension, Chapter 163 Management of severe hypertension in the ICU, Chapter 164 Pathophysiology of severe capillary leak, Chapter 165 Management of acute non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, Chapter 166 Pathophysiology and causes of pericardial tamponade, Chapter 167 Management of pericardial tamponade, Chapter 168 Pathophysiology and causes of pulmonary hypertension, Chapter 169 Diagnosis and management of pulmonary hypertension, Chapter 170 Pathophysiology and causes of pulmonary embolism, Chapter 171 Diagnosis and management of pulmonary embolism, Chapter 172 Normal physiology of the gastrointestinal system, Chapter 173 Normal physiology of the hepatic system, Chapter 174 Imaging the abdomen in the critically ill, Chapter 175 Hepatic function in the critically ill, Chapter 176 Pathophysiology and causes of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage, Chapter 177 Diagnosis and management of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in the critically ill, Chapter 178 Diagnosis and management of variceal bleeding in the critically ill, Chapter 179 Pathophysiology and causes of lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage, Chapter 180 Diagnosis and management of lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage in the critically ill, Chapter 181 Vomiting and large nasogastric aspirates in the critically ill, Chapter 182 Ileus and obstruction in the critically ill, Chapter 183 Diarrhoea and constipation in the critically ill, Chapter 184 Pathophysiology and management of raised intra-abdominal pressure in the critically ill, Chapter 185 Perforated viscus in the critically ill, Chapter 186 Ischaemic bowel in the critically ill, Chapter 187 Intra-abdominal sepsis in the critically ill, Chapter 188 Acute acalculous cholecystitis in the critically ill, Chapter 189 Management of the open abdomen and abdominal fistulae in the critically ill, Chapter 190 Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and assessment of acute pancreatitis, Chapter 191 Management of acute pancreatitis in the critically ill, Chapter 192 Pathophysiology and causes of jaundice in the critically ill, Chapter 193 Management of jaundice in the critically ill, Chapter 194 Pathophysiology and causes of acute hepatic failure, Chapter 195 Diagnosis and assessment of acute hepatic failure in the critically ill, Chapter 196 Management of acute hepatic failure in the critically ill, Chapter 197 The effect of acute hepatic failure on drug handling in the critically ill, Chapter 198 Extracorporeal liver support devices in the ICU, Part 6.9 Acute on chronic hepatic failure, Chapter 199 Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and assessment of acute or chronic hepatic failure, Chapter 200 Management of acute or chronic hepatic failure in the critically ill, Chapter 201 Normal physiology of nutrition, Chapter 202 The metabolic and nutritional response to critical illness, Chapter 203 Pathophysiology of nutritional failure in the critically ill, Chapter 204 Assessing nutritional status in the ICU, Chapter 205 Indirect calorimetry in the ICU, Chapter 206 Enteral nutrition in the ICU, Chapter 207 Parenteral nutrition in the ICU, Chapter 208 Normal physiology of the renal system, Part 8.2 Renal monitoring and risk prediction, Chapter 209 Monitoring renal function in the critically ill, Chapter 210 Imaging the urinary tract in the critically ill, Part 8.3 Oliguria and acute kidney injury, Chapter 211 Pathophysiology of oliguria and acute kidney injury, Chapter 212 Diagnosis of oliguria and acute kidney injury, Chapter 213 Management of oliguria and acute kidney injury in the critically ill, Chapter 214 Continuous haemofiltration techniques in the critically ill, Chapter 215 Haemodialysis in the critically ill, Chapter 216 Peritoneal dialysis in the critically ill, Chapter 217 The effect of renal failure on drug handling in critical illness, Chapter 218 The effect of chronic renal failure on critical illness, Chapter 219 Normal anatomy and physiology of the brain, Chapter 220 Normal anatomy and physiology of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves, Chapter 221 Electroencephalogram monitoring in the critically ill, Chapter 222 Cerebral blood flow and perfusion monitoring in the critically ill, Chapter 223 Intracranial pressure monitoring in the ICU, Chapter 224 Imaging the central nervous system in the critically ill, Chapter 225 Pathophysiology and therapeutic strategy for sleep disturbance in the ICU, Part 9.4 Agitation, confusion, and delirium, Chapter 226 Causes and epidemiology of agitation, confusion, and delirium in the ICU, Chapter 227 Assessment and therapeutic strategy for agitation, confusion, and delirium in the ICU, Chapter 228 Causes and diagnosis of unconsciousness, Chapter 229 Management of unconsciousness in the ICU, Chapter 230 Non-pharmacological neuroprotection in the ICU, Chapter 231 Pathophysiology and causes of seizures, Chapter 232 Assessment and management of seizures in the critically ill, Chapter 233 Causes and management of intracranial hypertension, Chapter 235 Diagnosis and assessment of stroke, Chapter 236 Management of ischaemic stroke, Chapter 237 Management of parenchymal haemorrhage, Part 9.9 Non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage, Chapter 238 Epidemiology, diagnosis, and assessment on non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage, Chapter 239 Management of non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage in the critically ill, Chapter 240 Epidemiology, diagnosis, and assessment of meningitis and encephalitis, Chapter 241 Management of meningitis and encephalitis in the critically ill, Chapter 242 Pathophysiology, causes, and management of non-traumatic spinal injury, Chapter 243 Epidemiology, diagnosis, and assessment of neuromuscular syndromes, Chapter 244 Diagnosis, assessment, and management of myasthenia gravis and paramyasthenic syndromes, Chapter 245 Diagnosis, assessment, and management of tetanus, rabies, and botulism, Chapter 246 Diagnosis, assessment, and management of Guillain–Barré syndrome, Chapter 247 Diagnosis, assessment, and management of hyperthermic crises, Chapter 248 Diagnosis, assessment, and management of ICU-acquired weakness, Section 10 The metabolic and endocrine systems, Chapter 249 Normal physiology of the endocrine system, Chapter 250 Disorders of sodium in the critically ill, Chapter 251 Disorders of potassium in the critically ill, Chapter 252 Disorders of magnesium in the critically ill, Chapter 253 Disorders of calcium in the critically ill, Chapter 254 Disorders of phosphate in the critically ill, Part 10.3 Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis, Chapter 255 Pathophysiology and causes of metabolic acidosis in the critically ill, Chapter 256 Management of metabolic acidosis in the critically ill, Chapter 257 Pathophysiology, causes, and management of metabolic alkalosis in the critically ill, Chapter 258 Pathophysiology of glucose control, Chapter 259 Glycaemic control in critical illness, Chapter 260 Management of diabetic emergencies in the critically ill, Chapter 261 Pathophysiology and management of adrenal disorders in the critically ill, Chapter 262 Pathophysiology and management of pituitary disorders in the critically ill, Chapter 263 Pathophysiology and management of thyroid disorders in the critically ill, Chapter 264 Pathophysiology and management of functional endocrine tumours in the critically ill, Chapter 265 The blood cells and blood count, Chapter 267 Blood product therapy in the ICU, Chapter 269 Pathophysiology of disordered coagulation, Chapter 270 Disseminated intravascular coagulation in the critically ill, Chapter 271 Prevention and management of thrombosis in the critically ill, Chapter 272 Thrombocytopenia in the critically ill, Chapter 273 Pathophysiology and management of anaemia in the critically ill, Chapter 274 Pathophysiology and management of neutropenia in the critically ill, Chapter 275 Sickle crisis in the critically ill, Section 12 The skin and connective tissue, Part 12.1 Skin and connective tissue disorders, Chapter 276 Assessment and management of dermatological problems in the critically ill, Chapter 277 Vasculitis in the critically ill, Chapter 278 Rheumatoid arthritis in the critically ill, Part 12.2 Wound and pressure sore management, Chapter 279 Principles and prevention of pressure sores in the ICU, Chapter 280 Dressing techniques for wounds in the critically ill, Chapter 281 Microbiological surveillance in the critically ill, Chapter 282 Novel biomarkers of infection in the critically ill, Chapter 283 Definition, epidemiology, and general management of nosocomial infection, Chapter 284 Healthcare worker screening for nosocomial pathogens, Chapter 285 Environmental decontamination and isolation strategies in the ICU, Chapter 286 Antimicrobial selection policies in the ICU, Chapter 287 Oral, nasopharyngeal, and gut decontamination in the ICU, Chapter 288 Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of device-related infection in the ICU, Chapter 289 Antibiotic resistance in the ICU, Part 13.3 Infection in the immunocompromised, Chapter 290 Drug-induced depression of immunity in the critically ill, Chapter 292 Diagnosis and management of malaria in the ICU, Chapter 293 Diagnosis and management of viral haemorrhagic fevers in the ICU, Chapter 294 Other tropical diseases in the ICU, Chapter 295 Assessment of sepsis in the critically ill, Chapter 296 Management of sepsis in the critically ill, Chapter 297 Pathophysiology of septic shock, Chapter 298 Management of septic shock in the critically ill, Chapter 299 Innate immunity and the inflammatory cascade, Chapter 300 Brain injury biomarkers in the critically ill, Chapter 301 Cardiac injury biomarkers in the critically ill, Chapter 302 Renal injury biomarkers in the critically ill, Chapter 303 The host response to infection in the critically ill, Chapter 304 The host response to trauma and burns in the critically ill, Chapter 305 The host response to hypoxia in the critically ill, Chapter 306 Host–pathogen interactions in the critically ill, Chapter 307 Coagulation and the endothelium in acute injury in the critically ill, Chapter 308 Ischaemia-reperfusion injury in the critically ill, Chapter 309 Repair and recovery mechanisms following critical illness, Chapter 310 Neural and endocrine function in the immune response to critical illness, Chapter 311 Adaptive immunity in critical illness, Chapter 312 Immunomodulation strategies in the critically ill, Chapter 313 Immunoparesis in the critically ill, Chapter 314 Pathophysiology and management of anaphylaxis in the critically ill, Chapter 315 Role of toxicology assessment in poisoning, Chapter 316 Decontamination and enhanced elimination of poisons, Part 15.2 Management of specific poisons, Chapter 317 Management of salicylate poisoning, Chapter 318 Management of acetaminophen (paracetamol) poisoning, Chapter 319 Management of opioid poisoning, Chapter 320 Management of benzodiazepine poisoning, Chapter 321 Management of tricyclic antidepressant poisoning, Chapter 322 Management of poisoning by amphetamine or ecstasy, Chapter 323 Management of digoxin poisoning, Chapter 324 Management of cocaine poisoning, Chapter 326 Management of cyanide poisoning, Chapter 327 Management of alcohol poisoning, Chapter 328 Management of carbon monoxide poisoning, Chapter 329 Management of corrosive poisoning, Chapter 330 Management of pesticide and agricultural chemical poisoning, Chapter 331 Management of radiation poisoning, Chapter 332 A systematic approach to the injured patient, Chapter 333 Pathophysiology and management of thoracic injury, Chapter 334 Pathophysiology and management of abdominal injury, Chapter 335 Management of vascular injuries, Chapter 336 Management of limb and pelvic injuries, Chapter 337 Assessment and management of fat embolism, Chapter 338 Assessment and management of combat trauma, Chapter 339 Pathophysiology of ballistic trauma, Chapter 340 Assessment and management of ballistic trauma, Chapter 341 Epidemiology and pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury, Chapter 342 Assessment of traumatic brain injury, Chapter 343 Management of traumatic brain injury, Chapter 344 Assessment and immediate management of spinal cord injury, Chapter 345 Ongoing management of the tetraplegic patient in the ICU, Chapter 346 Pathophysiology and assessment of burns, Chapter 347 Management of burns in the ICU, Chapter 348 Pathophysiology and management of drowning, Chapter 349 Pathophysiology and management of electrocution, Part 17.3 Altitude- and depth-related disorders, Chapter 350 Pathophysiology and management of altitude-related disorders, Chapter 351 Pathophysiology and management of depth-related disorders, Chapter 352 Pathophysiology and management of fever, Chapter 353 Pathophysiology and management of hyperthermia, Chapter 354 Pathophysiology and management of hypothermia, Chapter 355 Pathophysiology and management of rhabdomyolysis, Chapter 356 Pathophysiology and assessment of pain, Chapter 357 Pain management in the critically ill, Chapter 358 Sedation assessment in the critically ill, Chapter 359 Management of sedation in the critically ill, Section 19 General surgical and obstetric intensive care, Part 19.1 Optimization strategies for the high-risk surgical patient, Chapter 360 Identification of the high-risk surgical patient, Chapter 361 Peri-operative optimization of the high risk surgical patient, Part 19.2 General post-operative intensive care, Chapter 362 Post-operative ventilatory dysfunction management in the ICU, Chapter 363 Post-operative fluid and circulatory management in the ICU, Chapter 364 Enhanced surgical recovery programmes in the ICU, Chapter 365 Obstetric physiology and special considerations in ICU, Chapter 366 Pathophysiology and management of pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and HELLP syndrome, Chapter 367 Obstetric Disorders in the ICU, Part 20.1 Specialized surgical intensive care, Chapter 368 Intensive care management after cardiothoracic surgery, Chapter 369 Intensive care management after neurosurgery, Chapter 370 Intensive care management after vascular surgery, Chapter 371 Intensive care management in hepatic and other abdominal organ transplantation, Chapter 372 Intensive care management in cardiac transplantation, Chapter 373 Intensive care management in lung transplantation, Chapter 374 ICU selection and outcome of patients with haematological malignancy, Chapter 375 Management of the bone marrow transplant recipient in ICU, Chapter 376 Management of oncological complications in the ICU, Section 21 Recovery from critical illness, Part 21.1 In-hospital recovery from critical illness, Chapter 378 Promoting physical recovery in critical illness, Chapter 379 Promoting renal recovery in critical illness, Chapter 380 Recovering from critical illness in hospital, Part 21.2 Complications of critical illness, Chapter 381 Physical consequences of critical illness, Chapter 382 Neurocognitive impairment after critical illness, Chapter 383 Affective and mood disorders after critical illness, Part 21.3 Out-of-hospital support after critical illness, Chapter 384 Long-term weaning centres in critical care, Chapter 386 Rehabilitation from critical illness after hospital discharge, Part 22.1 Withdrawing and withholding treatment, Chapter 387 Ethical decision making in withdrawing and withholding treatment, Chapter 388 Management of the dying patient, Part 22.2 Management of the potential organ donor, Chapter 389 Beating heart organ donation, Chapter 390 Non-heart-beating organ donation, Chapter 391 Post-mortem examination in the ICU. 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